To understand the multi-scale interactions of energy and water between the land surface, PBL, and the troposphere, regional modeling and regionally-nested 4DDA will be essential. Some regional atmospheric models combined with macro-scale hydrological models will be developed and utilized.

Photo: Relative contribution of Atlantic (blue), Indian (red), and Pacific (green) evaporation for precipitation in summer. Result of an atmospheric general circulation transport model. (Numaguchi,1996)

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