The Tenth IHP Training Course
(International Hydrological Programme)

Hydrology related to Head Water Management

24 July - 6 August, 2000
Kiryu-City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan

Working Group for IHP Training Course,
Sub-committee for IHP,
Japanese National Commission for UNESCO



      "Head Water Area" is understood as both supplying a source of clean water and assisting in the prevention of flood/sediment disasters for living people downstream. Over-cutting of trees or industrial pollution sometimes damages to the surrounding environment of "Head Water". Japan has experiences such failures 100 years ago. In this training course, We would like to focus on hydrological impacts of non-vegetation, and on the effects of both reforestation in steep slope and erosion control works in river-bed. The watersheds, we focus on, are damaged in the past with sulphurous acid gas caused by the refining factory of copper. Lectures are provided at the Faculty of Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu-city, Gunma Prefecture, and field training is to be done in the basin of the Watarase River, a tributary of the Tone River which is very important for Tokyo Metropolitan.


     Why we should pay attention to the circumstance of "Head Water Area" is lectured theoretically and empirically through hydrological analysis. It usually takes long years to recover devastated mountain. It just means that practical field works have to be evaluated scientifically and technologically by long-term survey and observation. Knowledge and wisdom obtained have to be expanded to countries with similar climate and topological condition. Participants can learn significance of head water conservation through lectures, practices and field tours.

Course Contents
(convenor: Y. Fukushima)

T. Ohta (Graduate School of life and Agriculture, University of Tokyo)
S. Kobatake (Faculty of Technology, Gunma University)
Y. Fukushima (Institute for Hydrospheric-Atmospheric Sciences, Nagoya University)
Y. Kawano (Forestry Agency, Ministry of Agriculture)
Y. Nakamura (Nikko Branch Office, Ministry of Construction)
K. Honda (Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand)
T. Tsujimoto (Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University)
H. Tanji (Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture)
H. Kawashima (Graduate school of life and Agriculture, University of Tokyo)
G. Takahashi (Toyama Prefectural University of Agriculture)


L 1-1. Typology of erosion processes and watershed management

... T. Ohta
     Headwater areas in the world are roughly divided into two types geologically, namely continental type eroded area and island-arc type eroded area. In the former area, gravitation erosion predominates, while in the latter, surface erosion predominates. In this lecture, how to control watershed will be presented from the view point of erosion control.

L 1-2. Effect of human activities on head water

.... T.Ohta
     Once there were wide spread degraded land tracts in the central part of Japan. About one hundred years ago, the government established the River Law, the forest Law and Sabo Law, and people made every effort to recover forests. Conseqently, Japan has better forests and sediment-related disasters decreased. The Japanese experience will be explained in this lecture.

L 1-3. Histry of mountain devastation in the Watarase River

.... S. Kobatake
     Though mountain slope should be covered by forest climatically, the reason why it was devastated is explainned.

L 2. Hydrological processes in headwater

.... Y. Fukushima
     Hydrological processes such as rainfall, snowfall, infiltration, evaporation, snowmelt, overland flow, sub-surface flow, base flow and river runoff formation, are theoretically and practically lectured by using lots of examples. Finally, how could we estimate the worth of forest coverage is discussed by using models.

L 3-1. Forest conservation project in headwater areas

.... Y. Kawano
     Taking consideration of the natural condition on our country such as about terrain, geology, climate, and vegetation, etc, forest conservation works based on management of forests have been playing very important role in watershed management in Japan. Thus, this lecture reviews the history of development and the back-up system of forest conservation project in Japan. In particular, it presents systematically the technique such as the typical engineering works (hillside works, check dams, etc), the method of reforestation, etc, for rehabilitation of devastated land and forest in headwater areas.

L 3-2. Sediment disaster preventive works in Japan

.... Y. Nakamura
     Torrent control works are also carried out in devastated torrent in Japan. Field survey, planning, execution of works are introduced in detail.

L 3-3. Evaluation of Erosion Control Work using Remote Sensing and GIS

.... K. Honda
     Evaluation of erosion control work on forest recovery and water/sediment discharge is important. Forest recovery process was modeled by using remote sensing. Also water and Sediment discharge model, which is linked with forest recovery simulation, were developed. Several scenario of erosion control work were evaluated using these models.

L & P 4. Runoff analysis of head water

..... S. Kobatake
     There are some classifications for runoff model, for example, distributed model vs. lumped model and conceptual model vs. physical model. Whatever runoff model we choose, the most important step in runoff calculation is estimation of effective rainfall. The way to estimate effective rainfall and some representative runoff models are introduced. Exercises are also included.

L & P 5.  Sediment Transport and River Management

..... T. Tsujimoto
     In this course, it is demonstrated first how important the comprehensive control of sediment is for integrated river management including the views of disaster prevention, water resources development and eco-system preservation. Next, fundamentals in the mechanics of sediment transport and fluvial hydraulics are lectured and some exercises are provided. Then, it is introduced how such basic knowledge and techniques contribute to understanding of rivers and river basins and their integrated management, and further exercises are provided as well.

L 6-1. Irrigation system and watershed management

... H. Tanji
     Well-developed irrigation system requests well-managed mountain watershed. Irrigation system in Japan is explained in  the relation with watershed management.

L 6-2. River basin management and water quality

.... H. Kawashima
     The relation between river water quality and land use in its basin is lectured. Agricultural activity, the number of livestock and population density in the basin affects much influence on the river water quality. Nitrogen balance is the key concept to interpret this relationship.

L 6-3. Watershed management and conservation of ecosystem

.... G. Takahashi
     Watershed management used to be considered and performed with respect to water resources, control of flood, erosion and sedimentation, etc. In order to keep desirable environment, ecological perspectives and activities should be incorporated into watershed management. Basic concept and some activities are introduced in this lecture.

Technical Tours

     The trainees will visit Ashio basin and Nantai volcanic mountain that are well known devastated regions in Japan. Erosion control works have been carried out in the regions to prevent soil-related disasters. The technical tours also include the Watarase Retarding Basin, Tone-Oozeki Barrage and the integrated Dam Control Office to maximize the efficient utilization of the dams.

Schedule (July 24 - August 8, 2000)

July 2000
24 (Monday)
Arrival at Narita Airport and move to Kiryu-city by limousine  Stay at Kiryu-city
25 (Tuesday) Guidance, Lectures 1 at the campus of Gunma University Stay at Kiryu-city
26 (Wednesday) Lecture 2 Stay at Kiryu-city
27 (Thursday) Lecture 3 Stay at Kiryu-city
28  (Friday) Technical tours to Ashio Stay at Lake Chuuzenji
29  (Saturday) Technical tours to Mt. Nantai Stay at Lake Chuuzenji
30  (Sunday) Inspect sights of Nikko Stay at Kiryu-city
31  (Monday) Lecture and Practice 4 Stay at Kiryu-city
August1  (Tuesday) Lecture and Practice 5 Stay at Kiryu-city
2  (Wednesday) Technical tour to the integrated Dam Control Office Stay at Kiryu-city
3  (Thursday) Lectures 6 Stay at Kiryu-city
4  (Friday) Technical tour to the Watarase Retarding Basin and Tone-Oozeki Barrage Stay at Kiryu-city
5  (Saturday) Move to Tokyo Stay at Tokyo
6  (Sunday) Departure from Narita

Figure 1 Location Map of Kanto Region (This Training Course), Japan


     The average air temperature is +25 to +35 degrees and total precipitation is about 170 mm a month in Kiryu-city. In Lake Chuuzenji with 1,270 m a.s.l., you may feel cool in the night time.


     The trainees from the Asia-pacific region are selected and recommended by the Regional Office for Science and Technology, United Nations Educational, scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The UNESCO Jakarta Office would be in charge for the selection and the recommendation of the participants. Successful candidates would be supported financially by UNESCO for his/her travel as well as per diem in Japan. Those who wish to participate, are requested to contact the UNESCO Jakarta Office at the following address.

Programme Specialist for Hydrology, UNESCO
Regional Office for Science and Technology,
UNESCO Jakarta Office, JI. M.H. Thamlin 14,
Tromolpos 1273/JKT Jakarta 10002 Indonesia
FAX: +62-21-3150382
     Postgraduate students enrolled in the special course in the graduate School of Nagoya University, and who are at the institute for Hydrospheric-Atmospheric sciences, Nagoya University, under the auspices of the Special Program for Sciences of the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere are eligible to participate.
     Additional trainees may be allowed to participate, at their own expense. They should contact the Secretary of the IHP training Course, whose contact address is given at the end of this leaflet.

Forthcoming IHP Training Course

2001 Course on Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes in Hydrology (to be abbreviated as H & O Isotopes in Hydrology)
         (to be conducted in summer or early fall, 2001)

     Stable isotopes in hydrogen and oxygen have been commonly used tracers in the field of hydrology. Tritium, a radioisotope of hydrogen, has a life time of the order of 10 years and acts as a age indicator of water masses from several to several hundreds of years. The course focuses on how to answer hydrological questions by analyzing isotopic abundance of water on the basis of global distributions, characterization of waters, fractionation mechanisms, mixing of water masses, isotopic exchange with lithosphere. Lectures are to be given at Institute of Hydrospheric-Atmospheric Sciences, Nagoya Univ. Aichi Pref. and Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo. Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa Pref.

Planned Lectures

Practical Training

     Water samples are to be collected from volcanic gas, caldera lake, rivers, springs related to Mr. Kusatsu Shirane volcanic activities close to the Observatory of Tokyo. Institute of Technology, Gunma Pref. Various water samples are also to be collected at Chiba Experimental Forest of Univ. of Tokyo, Chiba Pref. Stable isotope ratios in the water samples are determined in the laboratory of Tokyo Institute of Technology. Measured data are to be analyzed including Rayleigh distillation simulation experiments.

2002 Precipitation and Water Resources
2003 Effects of Pollutants on Atmospheric Environment

     The IHP Training Course is financially supported by a Trust Fund for UNESCO from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japanese Government.

Address inquiries to: j. Nakamura, Secretary of the IHP Training Course,
Institute for Hydrospheric-Atmospheric Sciences,
Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 Japan
TEL: +81-52-789-5439
FAX: +81-52-789-3436
IHP Training Course URL:

Back to IHP Index
Back to IHAS Home Page