Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes
Stable and radioactive isotopes of light elements, and natural abundance of isotopes
Equilibrium and kinetic fractionation of isotopes, and decay of radioactive isotopes
Determination of stable isotope abundance
Basic technical terms, relationship among natural waters, and homogeneity of sea water
Meteoric water, Craig's relation, Dansgaard's relation, d-value and kinetic evaporation
Meteoric precipitation, Rayleigh process, Dansgaard's four effects Surface water and groundwater, catchment area of river
Large-scale atmospheric circulation and water budget
Large-scale distribution of D & O-18 in precipitation and its variability
Large-scale water transport and D & O-18 variability
Isotope circulation model and its application
Structure of clouds and temporal variation in the isotopic compositions of precipitation
Cloud type, and factors controlling the isotopic compositions of precipitation
Water cycles in ecosystems, fate of rainwater, and water uptake by plants
Diffusion process in snow and ice; Isotope process in ice and water system;
Fractionation during dry and wet snow metamorphism
Isotope data in ice cores (in Greenland, Antarctica, and mid-latitude)
Measurement of tritium
Tritium in precipitation
Tritium in river and groundwater
Role of soil water in water cycle, and physical processes of soil water movement
Soil water extraction techniques, suction, centrifugation, and distillation
Processes leading to isotopic variations in soil water, and water budget
Where, when, and how groundwater is recharged？
Groundwater flow system study with some application of the effect of tunnel construction
Groundwater recharge process revealed by soil tritium profiles
Use of several environmental tracers to detect the surface and subsurface water interaction
Precipitation, river and lake water in arid area
Groundwater, and isotopic application to water resources development
Field themes remained for further investigation
Hot spring waters and geothermal waters
Volcanic, magmatic and mantle waters
Various water samples will be taken around Mt. Kusatsu-Shirane.
Geothermal fluid: Property of geothermal fluid; Apparatus of the sampling; Measurements
Volcanic gas; Property of volcanic gas; Apparatus of the sampling; Measurements
Crater lake water: Property of active crater lake water; Apparatus of the sampling; Measurements
Hot spring water: Property of hot spring water; Apparatus of the sampling; Measurements
Various water samples will be taken in the University Forest in Chiba.
Rainfall: Long-term records; Temporal and spatial distribution; Chemistry
Throughfall and stemflow in a natural Abies (Momi) and Tsuga forest and Japanese Ceder and Cypress forest; Long-term monitoring of throughfall and stemflow; Spatial distribution of throughfall; Factors affecting stemflow volume and chemistry
Streamwater; Water balance and hydrological characteristics; Long-term monitoring of streamwater chemistry; Effect of logging on streamwater chemistry; Groundwater and soil water chemistry
All procedures for hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition in rainwater will be shown.
Water samples collected will be analyzed at the isotope laboratory in Tokyo Institute of Technology.
Sampling: Equipment; An example for simulating evaporation-condensation processes by laboratory experiments
Measurement: Principle of mass-spectrometer; Sample preparation; Determination of isotope ratios by isotope equilibration methods
Data processing: How to convert raw data to the delta value
|Arrival at Nagoya Airport||Stay in Nagoya|
|10 (Monday)||Guidance, Chapters 1, 2 & 3, Icebreaker reception at Nagoya University||Stay in Nagoya|
|11 (Tuesday)||Lectures 4, 11, 7 & 6, laboratory tour at HyARC, Nagoya University||Stay in Nagoya|
|12 (Wednesday)||Move to Volcanic Fluid Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology (TITECH) at Kusatsu-Shirane||Stay in Kusatsu|
|13 (Thursday)||Practice 1, Sampling of hydrothermal water etc. and laboratory tour at the Center||Stay in Kusatsu|
|14 (Friday)||Move to Tokyo and Stay at National Olympic Memorial Youth Center||Stay in Tokyo|
|15 (Saturday)||Practice 3 at Suzukakedai Campus of TITECH||Stay in Tokyo|
|16 (Sunday)||Lectures 10 & 9 at National Olympics Memorial Youth Center||Stay in Tokyo|
|17 (Monday)||Practice 3 (cont'd) and Lecture 8 at TITECH||Stay in Tokyo|
|18 (Tuesday)||Move to University Forest in Chiba, University of Tokyo, Practice 2, Sampling of stream water etc.||Stay in Chiba|
|19 (Wednesday)||Practice 2 (cont'd), move back to Tokyo||Stay in Tokyo|
|20 (Thursday)||Lecture 5 and Practice 3 (cont'd), Simulation training, and Discussion||Stay in Tokyo|
|21 (Friday)||Closing ceremony and Farewell Lunch Party||Stay in Tokyo|
|22 (Saturday)||Departure from Narita Airport|
Programme Specialist for Hydrology, UNESCO|
Regional Office for Science and Technology,
UNESCO Jakarta Office, JI. M.H. Thamlin 14,
Tromolpos 1273/JKT Jakarta 10002 Indonesia
FAX : +62-21-3150382
E-mail : email@example.com
Desirable dresses at Kusatsu and Chiba
Practices at Kusatsu (Sep 12-14) and Chiba (Sep 18-19) include field survey. Following dresses are desirable.
*Coat with long sleeves (e.g. wind breaker or parka, etc. See also below section (climate)) which can be become dirty.
*Another outwears for field survey.
*Shoes for trekking.
Optional experiment for isotope hydrology (if you prefer)
If you will bring your domestic water with you (e.g. domestic mineral water, tap water in your house and ground water, etc.), we will measure them. At the final day of the training course (Sep 20), you will see the result of the isotopic variation of water between countries.
If you have an interest to this option and/or you would like to know what isotopic composition your water has, please cooperate this experiment.
Information of the material to be brought with you
number of the sample: one bottle only
minimum amount of the sample: 50 cc.
desirable sample: bottled commercial "domestic" meneral water (unopened, not "Evian", "Perrier" nor any "international" ones)
tap water or ground water you usually used (must be fullfilled into empty bottle and sealed tightly)
Climate of September in Japan
Daily maximum temperature: 27.8
Daily minimum temperature : 19.8
Almost comfortable but sometimes attacked by "Typhoon"
Tokyo (similar to Chiba and Yokohama)
Daily maximum temperature: 26.6
Daily minimum temperature : 20.4
Almost comfortable but sometimes attacked by "Typhoon"
Kusatsu (altitude: 1230m)
Daily maximum temperature: 18.4
Daily minimum temperature : 12.1
A little bit cool (climate like "highland region")
Japanese only. Few people can speak good English, but many people can understand simple English words.
You can see many English notice boards in the public traffic system (railway and subway).
Japanese Yen (\) only.
When you arrive at Nagoya Airport....
Please check-in the hotel "The Rubrum Ohzan" at "Ikeshita" in Nagoya city by yourselves (see below).
Two Japanese supporting stuff will stay in this hotel and take you to the Nagoya University next morning.
Please check-out the hotel next morning. Since Sep. 10th, you will stay in the guest house of Nagoya Univ.
You must meet together at 8:00AM of the next morning (September 10th).
How to access from Nagoya Airport to the The Rubrum Ohzan.
There are two routes to reach the Rubrum Ohzan Hotel. First alternative is simple and recommendable.
1-1. When you arrive at Nagoya Airport, please get a "Meitetsu" airport bus to "Fujigaoka". The bus starts every one hour and takes 900 JPY and 30 min. to "Fujigaoka".
1-2. After arrival at Fujigaoka as terminal, please get a subway "Higashiyama Line" to 8th station "Ikeshita". It takes 260 JPY and 15-20 min. from Fujigaoka to Ikeshita. Because Fujigaoka is the terminal of Higashiyama Line, any trains will take you to Ikeshita station. Note that Fujigaoka Station is not underground but on ground station.
1-3. Get off the subway at Ikeshita and leave this station from #2 exit (see map).
1-4. Go east 200 m on "Hirokohji" street (east-west street at the just south of Ikeshita station) and you can see the Rubrum Ohzan at left side.
-For impatient or late-arrived people-
2-1. When you arrive at Nagoya Airport, please get a "Meitetsu" airport bus to "Nagoya Station (Meitetsu Bus Center)." The bus starts every 5-10 minutes and takes 30 minutes to "Nagoya Station".
2-2. After arrival at Nagoya Station as terminal, please find a subway gate of "Higashiyama Line", characterized by yellow color.
2-3. If you find the gate successfully, please get the subway "Higashiyama Line" to be terminated at "Fujigaoka".
2-4. Get off the subway at 6th station "Ikeshita" and leave this station from #2 exit.
2-5. Same as 1-4.
Nagoya Airport (including detail bus timetable): http://www.nagoya-airport-bldg.co.jp/index-e.html
Nagoya University: http://www.nagoya-u.ac.jp/english/index.html
Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center (HyARC), Nagoya Univ.:
For more details...
Please contact with the temporary office of the 11th IHP training course; firstname.lastname@example.org (Osamu ABE)
Map around Ikeshita Subway Station
Based on the knowledge given by lectures, simple models for water cycles in river basin scale are to be constructed. Water runoff are to be simulated for various actual river basins under precipitation measured by weather station network and/or satellites. In addition to these desk work, technical tours, for example, river control office, test river basin site would also be included.
2003 Course: Effects of Pollutants on Atmospheric Environment
TThe IHP Training Course is financially supported by a Trust Fund for UNESCO from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japanese Government.