The Eleventh IHP Training Course
(International Hydrological Programme)

Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes
in Hydrology

9 - 22 September, 2001
Nagoya, Kusatsu, Chiba, Yokohama, & Tokyo, Japan

Working Group for IHP Training Course,
Sub-committee for IHP,
Japanese National Commission for UNESCO



  As a part of the Japanese contribution to the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), a short course for participants from the Asia-Pacific region is going to be conducted on hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in hydrology, from 9 to 22 September, 2001, at the Institute for Hydrospheric-Atmospheric Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, at Volcanic Fluid Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kusatsu, at the University Forest in Chiba, the University of Tokyo, Chiba, and at Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan. The course includes a series of lectures in English, practice sessions and technical tours of various research institutions and facilities concerned with isotope hydrology.


  The general aim of the IHP short course is to help participants develop their basic knowledge of hydrological systems and of their sensitivity to climatic changes, as well as to contribute to solving current global environmental problems. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, and tritium of hydrological waters, have been used to trace water circulation in various scale in time and space. They have been revealed to be good parameters for understanding the hydrological systems and solving the hydrological problems. Fundamentals for sampling, determination, data analysis, and transport models of water isotopes will be briefly lectured about seawater, water vapor, precipitation water, snow, ice, surface water, soil water, ground water, and volcanic and hydrothermal water. Participants can get comprehensive idea of the application of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in hydrology by practice to collect various kinds of hydrological samples, determine their isotope ratios, and analyze their data by themselves.

Course Contents

(convenor: N. Yoshida)


O. Abe  (Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University)
K. Kuraji  (The Tokyo University Forests, The University of Tokyo)
M. Kusakabe  (Institute for Study of the Earth's Interior, Okayama University)
O. Matsubaya  (Research Institute of Materials and Resources, Akita University)
M. Nakawo  (Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, MEXT)
A. Numaguti  (expected but passed away by sudden boat accident)
T. Ohba  (Volcanic Fluid Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology)
H. Satake  (Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Toyama University)
J. Shimada  (Department of Earth Science, Kumamoto University)
A. Sugimoto  (Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University)
S. Toyoda  (Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology)
M. Tsujimura  (Hydrology Laboratory, Institute of Geoscience, University of Tsukuba)
H. Wushiki  (Japan International Cooperation Agency)
K. Yamada  (Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology)
M. Yasuhara  (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)
N. Yoshida  (Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology)


Chapter 1. Fundamentals of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in hydrology
…… N. Yoshida

Stable and radioactive isotopes of light elements, and natural abundance of isotopes
Equilibrium and kinetic fractionation of isotopes, and decay of radioactive isotopes
Determination of stable isotope abundance

Chapter 2. General feature on the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of natural water
…… O. Matsubaya

Basic technical terms, relationship among natural waters, and homogeneity of sea water
Meteoric water, Craig's relation, Dansgaard's relation, d-value and kinetic evaporation
Meteoric precipitation, Rayleigh process, Dansgaard's four effects Surface water and groundwater, catchment area of river

Chapter 3. Large-scale transport of water vapor and isotope variability
…… O. Matsubaya

Large-scale atmospheric circulation and water budget
Large-scale distribution of D & O-18 in precipitation and its variability
Large-scale water transport and D & O-18 variability
Isotope circulation model and its application

Chapter 4. Water circulation in regional scale
…… A. Sugimoto

Structure of clouds and temporal variation in the isotopic compositions of precipitation
Cloud type, and factors controlling the isotopic compositions of precipitation
Water cycles in ecosystems, fate of rainwater, and water uptake by plants

Chapter 5. Isotopes in snow and ice
…… M. Nakawo

Diffusion process in snow and ice; Isotope process in ice and water system;
Fractionation during dry and wet snow metamorphism
Isotope data in ice cores (in Greenland, Antarctica, and mid-latitude)

Chapter 6. Tritium in precipitation and surface waters
…… H. Satake

Measurement of tritium
Tritium in precipitation
Tritium in river and groundwater

Chapter 7. Stable isotopic composition in soil water
…… M. Tsujimura

Role of soil water in water cycle, and physical processes of soil water movement
Soil water extraction techniques, suction, centrifugation, and distillation
Processes leading to isotopic variations in soil water, and water budget

Chapter 8. Environmental isotopes in groundwaters
…… M. Yasuhara

Where, when, and how groundwater is recharged?
Groundwater mixing

Chapter 9. Use of environmental isotope tracers to reveal groundwater flow system
…… J. Shimada

Groundwater flow system study with some application of the effect of tunnel construction
Groundwater recharge process revealed by soil tritium profiles
Use of several environmental tracers to detect the surface and subsurface water interaction

Chapter 10. Water in arid lands
…… H. Wushiki

Precipitation, river and lake water in arid area
Groundwater, and isotopic application to water resources development
Field themes remained for further investigation

Chapter 11. Volcanic and hydrothermal waters
…… M. Kusakabe

Hot spring waters and geothermal waters
Volcanic, magmatic and mantle waters

Practical trainings

Chapter 12. Sampling of fluids involved in hydrothermal system
…… T. Ohba

Various water samples will be taken around Mt. Kusatsu-Shirane.
Geothermal fluid: Property of geothermal fluid; Apparatus of the sampling; Measurements
Volcanic gas; Property of volcanic gas; Apparatus of the sampling; Measurements
Crater lake water: Property of active crater lake water; Apparatus of the sampling; Measurements
Hot spring water: Property of hot spring water; Apparatus of the sampling; Measurements

Chapter 13. Hydrological and hydrochemical characteristics of rainfall, throughfall, stemflow and streamwater in the University Forest in Chiba, the University of Tokyo
…… K. Kuraji

Various water samples will be taken in the University Forest in Chiba.
Rainfall: Long-term records; Temporal and spatial distribution; Chemistry
Throughfall and stemflow in a natural Abies (Momi) and Tsuga forest and Japanese Ceder and Cypress forest; Long-term monitoring of throughfall and stemflow; Spatial distribution of throughfall; Factors affecting stemflow volume and chemistry
Streamwater; Water balance and hydrological characteristics; Long-term monitoring of streamwater chemistry; Effect of logging on streamwater chemistry; Groundwater and soil water chemistry

Chapter 14. Methods of sampling, measurement and data processing for hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition in rainwater
…… O. Abe, S. Toyoda, K. Yamada, N. Kurita, S. Hashimoto, R. Uemura and N. Yoshida

All procedures for hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition in rainwater will be shown.
Water samples collected will be analyzed at the isotope laboratory in Tokyo Institute of Technology.
Sampling: Equipment; An example for simulating evaporation-condensation processes by laboratory experiments
Measurement: Principle of mass-spectrometer; Sample preparation; Determination of isotope ratios by isotope equilibration methods
Data processing: How to convert raw data to the delta value


(9-22 September, 2001)
Sept., 2001
9 (Sunday)
Arrival at Nagoya AirportStay in Nagoya
10 (Monday)Guidance, Chapters 1, 2 & 3, Icebreaker reception at Nagoya UniversityStay in Nagoya
11 (Tuesday) Lectures 4, 11, 7 & 6, laboratory tour at HyARC, Nagoya UniversityStay in Nagoya
12 (Wednesday) Move to Volcanic Fluid Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology (TITECH) at Kusatsu-ShiraneStay in Kusatsu
13 (Thursday) Practice 1, Sampling of hydrothermal water etc. and laboratory tour at the CenterStay in Kusatsu
14 (Friday) Move to Tokyo and Stay at National Olympic Memorial Youth CenterStay in Tokyo
15 (Saturday) Practice 3 at Suzukakedai Campus of TITECHStay in Tokyo
16 (Sunday) Lectures 10 & 9 at National Olympics Memorial Youth CenterStay in Tokyo
17 (Monday) Practice 3 (cont'd) and Lecture 8 at TITECH Stay in Tokyo
18 (Tuesday) Move to University Forest in Chiba, University of Tokyo, Practice 2, Sampling of stream water etc.Stay in Chiba
19 (Wednesday) Practice 2 (cont'd), move back to TokyoStay in Tokyo
20 (Thursday) Lecture 5 and Practice 3 (cont'd), Simulation training, and DiscussionStay in Tokyo
21 (Friday) Closing ceremony and Farewell Lunch PartyStay in Tokyo
22 (Saturday) Departure from Narita Airport  


  The trainees from the Asia-Pacific region are selected and recommended by the Regional Office for Science and Technology, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The UNESCO Jakarta Office would be in charge for the selection and the recommendation of the participants. Successful candidates would be supported financially by UNESCO for his/her travel as well as per diem in Japan. Those who wish to participate are requested to contact the UNESCO Jakarta Office at the following address.

Programme Specialist for Hydrology, UNESCO
Regional Office for Science and Technology,

UNESCO Jakarta Office, JI. M.H. Thamlin 14,
Tromolpos 1273/JKT Jakarta 10002 Indonesia
FAX : +62-21-3150382
E-mail :

  Postgraduate students enrolled in the graduate school of Nagoya University at the Institute for Hydrospheric-Atmospheric Sciences, Nagoya University, under the auspices of the Special Program for Sciences of the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere are eligible to participate.
  Additional trainees may be allowed to participate at their own expense. They should contact the Secretary of the IHP Training Course, whose contact address is given as the last of this brochure.


Important information for participants (9/5/01)


Detail Schedule


Desirable dresses at Kusatsu and Chiba

    Practices at Kusatsu (Sep 12-14) and Chiba (Sep 18-19) include field survey. Following dresses are desirable.

    *Coat with long sleeves (e.g. wind breaker or parka, etc. See also below section (climate)) which can be become dirty.

   *Another outwears for field survey.

   *Shoes for trekking.

   *Rain wear

   *Day pack


Optional experiment for isotope hydrology (if you prefer)

If you will bring your domestic water with you (e.g. domestic mineral water, tap water in your house and ground water, etc.), we will measure them. At the final day of the training course (Sep 20), you will see the result of the isotopic variation of water between countries.

If you have an interest to this option and/or you would like to know what isotopic composition your water has, please cooperate this experiment.

Information of the material to be brought with you
    number of the sample: one bottle only
    minimum amount of the sample: 50 cc.
    desirable sample: bottled commercial "domestic" meneral water (unopened, not "Evian", "Perrier" nor any "international" ones)
    tap water or ground water you usually used (must be fullfilled into empty bottle and sealed tightly)



Climate of September in Japan


    Daily maximum temperature: 27.8

    Daily minimum temperature : 19.8

    Almost comfortable but sometimes attacked by "Typhoon"

Tokyo (similar to Chiba and Yokohama)

    Daily maximum temperature: 26.6

    Daily minimum temperature : 20.4

    Almost comfortable but sometimes attacked by "Typhoon"

Kusatsu (altitude: 1230m)

    Daily maximum temperature: 18.4

    Daily minimum temperature : 12.1

    A little bit cool (climate like "highland region")


    Japanese only. Few people can speak good English, but many people can understand simple English words.

    You can see many English notice boards in the public traffic system (railway and subway).


    Japanese Yen (\) only.


When you arrive at Nagoya Airport....

    Please check-in the hotel "The Rubrum Ohzan" at "Ikeshita" in Nagoya city by yourselves (see below).

    Two Japanese supporting stuff will stay in this hotel and take you to the Nagoya University next morning.

   Please check-out the hotel next morning. Since Sep. 10th, you will stay in the guest house of Nagoya Univ.

   You must meet together at 8:00AM of the next morning (September 10th).


How to access from Nagoya Airport to the The Rubrum Ohzan.

There are two routes to reach the Rubrum Ohzan Hotel. First alternative is simple and recommendable.

    1-1. When you arrive at Nagoya Airport, please get a "Meitetsu" airport bus to "Fujigaoka". The bus starts every one hour and takes 900 JPY and 30 min. to "Fujigaoka".

    1-2. After arrival at Fujigaoka as terminal, please get a subway "Higashiyama Line" to 8th station "Ikeshita". It takes 260 JPY and 15-20 min. from Fujigaoka to Ikeshita. Because Fujigaoka is the terminal of Higashiyama Line, any trains will take you to Ikeshita station. Note that Fujigaoka Station is not underground but on ground station.

    1-3. Get off the subway at Ikeshita and leave this station from #2 exit (see map).

    1-4. Go east 200 m on "Hirokohji" street (east-west street at the just south of Ikeshita station) and you can see the Rubrum Ohzan at left side.


-For impatient or late-arrived people-

    2-1. When you arrive at Nagoya Airport, please get a "Meitetsu" airport bus to "Nagoya Station (Meitetsu Bus Center)." The bus starts every 5-10 minutes and takes 30 minutes to "Nagoya Station".

    2-2. After arrival at Nagoya Station as terminal, please find a subway gate of "Higashiyama Line", characterized by yellow color.

    2-3. If you find the gate successfully, please get the subway "Higashiyama Line" to be terminated at "Fujigaoka".

    2-4. Get off the subway at 6th station "Ikeshita" and leave this station from #2 exit.

    2-5. Same as 1-4.


Important websites

    Nagoya Airport (including detail bus timetable):

    Nagoya University:

    Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center (HyARC), Nagoya Univ.:



For more details...

    Please contact with the temporary office of the 11th IHP training course; (Osamu ABE)


Map around Ikeshita Subway Station


Forthcoming IHP Training Course

2002 Course on Precipitation and Water Resources  (to be conducted in March, 2003)

  Water resource is one of the biggest problems for not only developing countries but also developed countries. For the developing counties, population increase resulted in a high demand of water. For the developed countries, the water is used nearly to limit, which causes vulnerability to subtle variation of water resources. To cope with the water resource problem, basic knowledge of water cycle in river basin is essential. The course will be focused to two points. First, precipitation which is the actual source of river water, and the second, the water cycle in river basin scale. The lectures and practices would be conducted in Nagoya University and Kyoto University.

Planned Lectures

Practical Training

  Based on the knowledge given by lectures, simple models for water cycles in river basin scale are to be constructed. Water runoff are to be simulated for various actual river basins under precipitation measured by weather station network and/or satellites. In addition to these desk work, technical tours, for example, river control office, test river basin site would also be included.

2003 Course: Effects of Pollutants on Atmospheric Environment

  TThe IHP Training Course is financially supported by a Trust Fund for UNESCO from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japanese Government.

Adress Inquiries to : K. Nakamura, Secretary of the IHP Training Course,
Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center,

Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 Japan,
TEL: +81-52-789-5439
FAX: +81-52-789-3436
IHP Training Course URL :

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