The 15th IHP Training Course
(International Hydrological Programme)

Water and Carbon
Cycles in Terrestrial

26February - 11March, 2006
Nagoya and Chiba, Japan

Working Group for IHP Training Course,
Sub-committee for IHP,
Japanese National Commission for UNESCO


 As a part of the Japanese contribution to the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), a short course for participants from the Asia-Pacific region will be conducted on Water and Carbon Cycles in Terrestrial Ecosystems, from 6 to 19 November, 2005, at Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center (HyARC) and Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. The course includes a series of lectures in English, practical sessions and technical tours to the Center for Environmental Remote Sensing (CEReS), Chiba University, the Earth Simulator Center, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC).
 Part of this IHP training course is co-organized by 21st Century COE Program at Nagoya University: Dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Life Interactive System (SELIS). Thus some candidates will be financially supported, in part, by the fund of 21st Century COE Program.


 The general aim of the 15th IHP short course is to help participants develop their basic knowledge of the Water and Carbon Cycles in Terrestrial Ecosystems in the solution of current global environmental problems. To detect and predict responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change is one of the important scientific issues in global environmental studies. To cope with such issues, a basic understanding of physical and biogeochemical nature of water and carbon cycles in various terrestrial ecosystems is required. Micrometeorological and biogeochemical knowledge and techniques, including use of stable isotopes of H2O and CO2 and numerical modeling, are the basis for this understanding.

 The course will focus on two major subjects. The first is the examination of leaf- and canopy-scale exchange processes of heat, H2O, and CO2 with the surrounding atmosphere. The second is the study of the relationships of the vegetation dynamics with future climate feedbacks. The lectures and practice sessions will be conducted at Nagoya University and Chiba University.

Course Contents

(conveners: T. Hiyama)


   A. Higuchi (Center for Environmental Remote Sensing (CEReS), Chiba University)
   K. Hikosaka (Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University)
   T. Hiyama (Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center (HyARC), Nagoya University)
   A. Itou (Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC))
   E. Konohira (Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University)
   T. Ohta (Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University)
   H. Shibata (Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University)
   Y. Yamaguchi (Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University)
   T. Yamanaka (Terrestrial Environment Research Center (TERC), University of Tsukuba)
   T. Yasunari (Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center (HyARC), Nagoya University)


L0 Introduction……………………………………………………………… T. Hiyama

   Guidance and outline of this IHP short course

L1 Canopy-Scale Fluxes of Heat, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide
  in Various Terrestrial Ecosystems
………………………………………. T. Hiyama
   Basic equations for the turbulent transport
   Eddy covariance technique for the surface fluxes estimations
   Carbon dioxide fluxes and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at terrestrial ecosystem
   Modeling of soil - vegetation - atmosphere transfers

L2 Water Cycle in Forested Area………………………………….…………. T. Ohta
   Water budget and vegetation
   Forest effects of water cycle -physiological effects and structural effects-
   Climate conditions and water cycle in forests
   Winter hydrological processes in forests

L3 Biogeochemical Processes of Carbon in Forested Ecosystem………… H. Shibata
   General principle of carbon cycling in forested ecosystem
   Monitoring and analytical method of carbon dynamics
   Case studies of carbon dynamics in forested basin

L4 Biogeochemical Processes of Nitrogen in Forested Ecosystem……… E. Konohira

   General principle of nitrogen cycling in forested ecosystem
   Nitrogen in stream and forest environments
   Implication of carbon and nitrogen dynamics in forested ecosystem

L5 Assessment of Plant-Water Relations using Stable Isotope Tracers……. T. Yamanaka

   Fundamentals of stable isotopes
   Methods for water sampling, extraction and analysis
   Water sources of plants and inter-specific interaction
   Canopy fluxes partitioning and water use efficiency
   Catchment water balance and ecosystem dynamics

L6 Integrated Use of Vegetation Indices and Surface Temperature Space
  obtained from Earth Observation Satellites Datase
……………….. A. Higuchi

   Introduction: Basics of optical and thermal-IR channels
   Examples of combined usage of vegetation indices and surface temperature
   Possibility for the detection of water and energy related information by the integrated uses of satellite remote sensing

L7 Observation of Global Vegetation Variations by Satellite Remote Sensing……… Y. Yamaguchi
   Fundamentals of multi-spectral data analysis
   Vegetation indices
   Relationship between global vegetation variations and climate
   Estimation of terrestrial net primary production (NPP)

L8 Role of Vegetation for the Earth Climate System………………… T. Yasunari

   Role of Tibetan Plateau and vegetation on Asian monsoon climate
   Climate and vegetation - an interactive and symbiotic system -
   Possible impact of vegetation change on the earth climate system
   (This lecture will be conducted as a part of SELIS special seminar.)

L9 Plant Responses to Elevated CO2 Concentration at Different Scales:
  Leaf, Whole Plant, Canopy, and Population
………………………………………………… K. Hikosaka
   Effect of seasonal acclimation on photosynthesis at elevated CO2
   Nitrogen limits seed production of annuals at elevated CO2
   Canopy structure and photosynthesis at elevated CO2
   Competition for light in mono-specific stands of annual plants at elevated CO2

L10 Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM)………………………… A. Itou
   Effectiveness of model simulation for global change
   How will terrestrial ecosystems respond to global warming?
   Dynamic models of water and carbon cycles in terrestrial ecosystems
   Earth-system modeling for advanced prediction of climatic change

P1 Measurement and Estimation of Canopy-Scale Fluxes……………. T. Hiyama

   Eddy covariance techniques for canopy-scale fluxes
   Bulk transfer equations for canopy-scale fluxes

P2 Satellite Measurements of Vegetation Condition and NPP…… Y. Yamaguchi

   Visualization of satellite remote sensing data
   Calculation of NDVI and estimation of NPP

P3 Satellite Measurements of Vegetation and Hydrologic Condition…… A. Higuchi

   Comparison of canopy-scale fluxes with remotely sensed variables
   Ts/VI technique to detect soil moisture condition

Technical Tours
    T1 Flux Research Site of a Secondary Forest at Seto.…………………… T. Ohta

    T2 Terrestrial Environment Research Center (TERC), University of Tsukuba……………T. Yamanaka

    T3 Center for Environmental Remote Sensing (CEReS), Chiba University………………… A. Higuchi

    T4 The Earth Simulator Center, JAMSTEC……………… A. Itou & T. Yasunari
     Visit to Center for The Earth Simulator Center for atmospheric, terrestrial and oceanic simulations
     with satellite earth observation

Schedule (26 February - 11 March, 2006)

26 (Sunday)Feb., 2006 Arrival at Nagoya Stay in Nagoya
27 (Monday) Guidance (Lecture 0), Lectures 1 & 2
Reception at Nagoya University

Stay in Nagoya

28 (Tuesday) Lecture 4, Technical Tour 1 Stay in Nagoya
01 (Wednesday)Mar., 2006 Lecture 5
Practice 1
Stay in Nagoya
02 (Thursday) Lectures 6 & 7 Stay in Nagoya
03 (Friday) Practice 2, Lecture 8 (SELIS special seminar) Stay in Nagoya
04 (Saturday) Discussion Stay in Nagoya
05 (Sunday) Japanese Culture Introduction and Free Time Stay in Nagoya
06 (Monday)

Lectures 9 & 10

Stay in Nagoya
07 (Tuesday)

Lecture 3, Technical Tour 2 (move to Tsukuba & Chiba)

Stay in Chiba
08 (Wednesday) Technical Tour 3, Practice 3 Stay in Chiba
09 (Thursday) Technical Tour 4 Stay in Chiba

10 (Friday)

Closing Ceremony Stay in Chiba
11 (Saturday)

Departure from Narita Airport


 The trainees from the Asia-Pacific region are selected and recommended by the Regional Science Bureau for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The UNESCO Office, Jakarta, will be in charge for the selection and recommendation of the participants. Successful candidates would be financially supported by UNESCO for their travels as well as per diem in Japan. Those who wish to participate are requested to contact UNESCO Office Jakarta at the following address:
   Giuseppe Arduino
   Programme Specialist in Hydrological Sciences
   UNESCO Jakarta Office
   UNESCO House
   Jalan Galuh (II), No.5
   Kebayoran Baru
   Jakarta Selatan 12110, Indonesia
   Tel: +62-21-739 9818
   Fax: +62-21-7279 6489

 Additional candidates are allowed to participate at their own expenses. They should contact the Secretary of the IHP Training Course, whose contact address is given as the last of this brochure. The recommendations both from the National Commission to UNESCO and IHP National Committees in their countries are highly desirable.

Forthcoming IHP Training Course

2006 Course: Oceanography Basics (to be conducted in winter, 2006)

The Asian monsoon is predominant in the East Asian region. The variability of the Asian Monsoon has great influence on the water cycle and climate change in the East Asian region. The ocean acts on the variability of the Asian monsoon actively and passively. The course will focus not only on the impact of the variability of the Asian monsoon on physical, chemical and biological processes over land, coastal seas, marginal seas and the North Pacific Ocean, but also on the influence of ocean variability on the Asian monsoon variability. The lectures and practice sessions will be conducted at Nagoya University, Mie University, Ehime University and the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology.

Planned Lectures:
   ・Environmental change on land related to the Asian monsoon variation.
   ・Physical, chemical and biological processes in the coastal seas.
   ・Material cycle in the Asian marginal seas.
   ・Ocean-Atmosphere interactions in the North Pacific Ocean.
Practical Training:
   ・Measurement of water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a and nutrients with direct observation using a Training Vessel.
   ・High-tech observation systems in the ocean.
   ・A study visit of an auto-monitoring system in the ocean environment of the Seto Inland Sea.

The IHP Training Course is financially supported by a Trust Fund for UNESCO from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japanese Government.

This Training Course is financially supported, in part, by funds from 21st Century COE Program at Nagoya University: Dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Life Interactive System (SELIS).

Address for inquiries: Tetsuya Hiyama (Associate Professor)
Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center (HyARC),
Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 Japan
Tel: +81-52-789-3478
Fax: +81-52-789-3436

15th IHP Training Course URL:

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